### Gerber Viewer

The Gerber viewer overlays the various layers of the PCB, allowing you to evaluate the overall aesthetic of your PCB design and ensuring a visually attractive finished product.

### Stripline Impedance

A PCB stripline is a trace routed within the PCB’s inner layers, enclosed by the substrate material and shielded by ground planes above and below. This design reduces emissions and shields against incoming signals. This calculator determines stripline impedance, capacitance, propagation delay, and inductance based on dielectric permittivity, trace height, thickness, and width.

### Coil Properties

Calculate coil characteristics like resistance, total wire length, and number of windings with our online electrical calculator. Simplify coil design and construction for optimal performance in your circuits.

### Series Resistance

A resistor, a fundamental passive component in electronics, restricts electric current flow and is measured in ohms (Ω). It comes in diverse types, sizes, and shapes. While mainly used to regulate current, resistors can configure various circuit complexities.

### Cable Force Calculator

Cable force, the tension in electrical wires, ensures structural integrity and system reliability, preventing drooping or mechanical failure. Managing cable force optimizes system safety and efficiency, preventing performance issues, signal degradation, and equipment damage.

### Coaxial Cable Impedance Calculator

Coaxial cable impedance determines signal flow resistance, crucial for transmission quality. Matching impedance minimizes distortion and loss, enhancing system performance.

### Bias Calculator

Biasing applies constant voltage or current for optimal device operation, preventing distortion and ensuring reliable signal processing or amplification.

### Electrical Power Factor Calculator

Power factor compares real power to total power, indicating efficiency. Monitoring it improves effectiveness, minimizes losses, enhances efficiency, and reduces expenses.

### Flyback SMPS Calculator

The Flyback SMPS converts input voltage into regulated output by storing energy and cycling voltage on and off, stabilizing input voltage fluctuations.

### IC 555 Astable Timer Calculator

The IC 555 astable timer generates continuous square wave signals independently, ideal for timing and pulse generation in electronic projects.

### KVA to Amps Calculator

KVA to Amps conversion determines electrical current from apparent power, aiding in sizing components for anticipated demands within specified capacity.

### LM317 Current Regulator Calculator

The LM317 current regulator maintains a constant output current, ensuring precise control and safe operation of electronic circuits, preventing damage and ensuring consistent performance.

### Microstrip Transmission Lines Impedance Calculator

One kind of transmission line utilized in high-frequency electrical and electronic circuits is microstrip transmission lines. A microstrip transmission line’s impedance, which is defined as the resistance to the flow of electrical current along the line, is influenced by the material qualities and geometry of the line.

### Parallel Inductance Calculator

Parallel inductance connects multiple inductors across a source, adjusting total inductance while maintaining voltage, enhancing design flexibility for circuit impedance and frequency response.

### Quality Factor In Optical Systems Calculator

The Quality Factor assesses optical systems’ efficiency and reliability, aiding optimization for communication, sensors, and laser applications.

### Series Capacitance Calculator

Series capacitance connects capacitors end-to-end, summing their reciprocals to determine total capacitance, useful for impedance control and signal filtering.

### Three Phase Transformer Calculator

A three-phase transformer transfers energy between systems, adjusting voltage levels and distributing loads efficiently to reduce losses.

### Stiffness Calculator

Stiffness in electrical and electronics refers to the ability to withstand mechanical loads without deformation. It ensures system stability and performance, preventing malfunctions or failures due to unwanted displacements or vibrations.

### Specific Work Calculator

Specific work quantifies energy per unit charge in an electric field, crucial for understanding system performance and energy consumption.

### Capacitor Energy (E) and RC Time Constant Calculator

Capacitor is a passive component used to store and release electrical energy (Similar to a battery). It consists of two conductive plates separated by an insulating material called a dielectric. When a voltage is applied across the plates, an electric field forms in the dielectric, causing positive and negative charges to accumulate on the plates. This accumulation of charge creates an electric potential difference between the plates, resulting in the storage of electrical energy in the capacitor’s electric field.

### Total Resistance of Series, Parallel Circuit Calculator

The sum of the individual resistances connected end to end in a single route constitutes the overall resistance of a series circuit. On the other hand, the reciprocal sum of the individual resistances connected over numerous channels determines the total resistance of parallel circuits. When resistors are added in parallel circuits, the overall resistance falls, but in series circuits, the total resistance rises with the addition of resistors.

### Voltage Standing Wave Ratio Calculator

VSWR assesses impedance mismatches, aiding signal transmission quality and impedance matching, minimizing power inefficiencies and signal loss.

### Wire Gauge Calculator

Wire gauge selection ensures wires can handle current loads and voltage levels safely, influencing ratings and capacity for reliable systems.

### Flat Coil Calculator

Flat spiral air core inductors, used in Tesla generators and RFID tags, offer high efficiency and Q-factor. However, they need larger sizes for specific inductance, resulting in bigger dimensions, higher copper loss, lower self-resonance, and increased stray field radiation.

### Stripline Differential

A PCB stripline is a trace within the PCB’s inner layers, enclosed by the substrate and shielded by ground planes, minimizing emissions and shielding against interference. This calculator determines differential impedance (e.g., D+ and D- from USB) by first calculating the single-ended impedance, then using trace spacing and height to find the differential impedance.

### Helical Antenna

Helical antennas are easy to design; conductor width is less critical. More turns increase directivity. Maintain consistent winding direction for polarization.

### Series Inductance

Inductors store energy as magnetic fields. Their primary characteristic is inductance (L). When current changes, stored energy is released, unlike capacitors, which store energy in electric fields.

### Cable Length Calculator

Cable length is the linear distance covered by a cable in electrical systems, measured in meters or feet from start to termination. It guides installation, layout planning, and cable quantity determination for effective cable management in electrical systems.

### Ah to KWh Conversion Calculator

Ah to kWh conversion standardizes energy measurements, aiding analysis of efficiency and performance in batteries, electric vehicles, and renewable energy.

### DC Power Calculator

Direct Current (DC) flows steadily in one direction. Sourced from batteries, solar cells, and rectifiers, it’s vital for powering electronic systems.

### Electricity Cost Calculator

Electricity cost, in monetary terms per kWh, considers usage patterns, utility rates, taxes, and levies. Quantifying energy use enables budgeting and influences conservation decisions.

### Gapped Core Inductance Calculator

“Gapped core inductance” adds an air or magnetic gap to modify inductance, offering precise control without altering size, enhancing design flexibility.

### Inductance of An Air Core Coil Calculator

An air core coil’s inductance, indicating its magnetic energy storage capability, depends on its turns, dimensions, and surrounding material. Unlike ferromagnetic core coils, air core coils derive magnetic properties from air. Understanding this inductance is crucial for designing and analyzing circuits, especially in AC, resonance, filtering, and energy storage applications.

### L Matching Network Calculator

The L matching network optimizes impedance between load and source using inductors (L) and capacitors (C), maximizing power transfer and system performance.

### MA/h Power Consumption Calculator

Monitoring mA/h power consumption assesses energy usage in devices, optimizing battery life and efficiency, enhancing device performance and longevity.

### Microstrip Impedance From Zo Calculator

In order to attain a desired impedance value, microstrip transmission lines’ diameters are altered in a process known as microstrip impedance from target impedance (Zo). For effective signal transmission, this modification usually entails changing trace width, substrate thickness, and dielectric constant to meet the intended impedance.

### R1 and R2 from Ze and Zs Calculator

Resistance values R1 and R2, derived from impedance parameters Ze and Zs, simplify circuit evaluation, aiding design, analysis, and troubleshooting in electrical systems.

### Single Phase Transformer Calculator

Single-phase transformer adjusts voltage levels safely, ensuring electrical isolation and optimal power transfer, preventing ground faults and short circuits.

### RF Power Density Calculator

RF Power Density refers to the amount of electromagnetic radiation power per unit area. It is commonly expressed in watts per square meter (W/m²) and serves to quantify the strength of radiofrequency (RF) signals.

### Straight Wire Inductor Calculator

A straight wire inductor generates inductance and magnetic fields in electrical circuits. It stores energy as a magnetic field, resisting current variations, controlling voltage, removing noise, and stabilizing signals.

### Toroid Inductance Per Turn Calculator

Toroid inductance per turn quantifies inductance generated by each winding, aiding optimization for energy storage and filtering applications.

### Transformer Current Calculator

Transformer current refers to charge flow through primary and secondary coils, facilitating voltage conversion and energy transfer between circuits.

### Young’s Modulus Spring Resonant Frequency Calculator

Young’s Modulus and Spring Resonant Frequency predict and assess spring-loaded systems’ response to external influences, optimizing mechanical and electrical designs.

### Volume of Conductor Calculator

Conductor volume represents space occupied by conducting materials in circuits, optimizing size and arrangement for efficiency and reliability.

### AC POWER Calculator

AC power efficiently distributes electricity with its sinusoidal waveform, enabling reliable transmission and powering various devices and machinery.

### Zener Diode Calculator

Zener diodes maintain constant voltage drop, ensuring stable output voltage and protecting components from voltage spikes in electrical circuits.

### Air Coil Calculator

Use this Calculator to find the energy stored in a capacitor (E) and the time constant (RC) based on the voltage across the capacitor

### Microstrip Impedance

Microstrip lines are external PCB transmission lines routed above a large reference plane, used for microwave and RF signals. This online calculator helps determine the impedance, capacitance, propagation delay, and inductance of a microstrip line, aiding in the optimization of your circuit design.

### Ground Strap Inductance

Grounding straps provide low-impedance paths for current dissipation, minimizing inductance, reducing interference, and enhancing grounding effectiveness.

### Energy u0026 τ

Capacitors store and release electrical energy between conductive plates separated by a dielectric. They’re characterized by capacitance (C) and voltage rating, measured in farads (F). Capacitance determines the charge stored; voltage rating indicates maximum voltage.

### Cable Size Calculator

Cable size encompasses diameter, cross-sectional area, and electrical capacity, determined by insulation, conductor material, and current-carrying capability. Proper cable sizing ensures safe power transfer, optimizing energy efficiency, system performance, and reducing risks of overheating and voltage drop.

### Electrical Admittance Calculator

Y, electrical admittance, is conductance plus susceptance, measuring current flow ease in AC circuits. Crucial for energy distribution and circuit response.

### Electric Potential Energy Calculator

Charged particles hold electric potential energy in fields, determined by charges and distance. Understanding aids in analyzing particle dynamics and behavior.

### Electrostatic Calculator

The study of static electric charges, which do not flow as current and stay motionless, is the focus of electrostatics. It investigates phenomena including charged object attraction and repulsion, the development of electric fields, and the accumulation of static electricity as a result of contact, induction, or friction.

### Instrumentation Amplifier Calculator

An instrumentation amplifier accurately amplifies weak signals, rejecting noise with low output impedance and high CMRR, ideal for precise signal measurement.

### LED Series Resistor Calculator

The LED series resistor protects the LED by limiting current, ensuring proper operation, longevity, brightness, and circuit stability.

### MA/h Power Consumption Calculator

mAh power consumption measures the charge used by a device, revealing energy consumption and battery life. Monitoring improves efficiency for optimized battery performance.

### Number of Turns In A Transformer Coil Calculator

The number of turns in a transformer coil determines the input-to-output voltage ratio, crucial for voltage transformation, enabling voltage adjustment for different applications.

### Parallel Resistance Calculator

Parallel resistance divides current, lowers total resistance, and allows customized current flow and voltage division.

### Parallel Wire Impedance Calculator

Parallel wire impedance encompasses resistance, capacitance, and inductance effects in wires carrying alternating current. It’s vital for minimizing interference and signal distortion, optimizing circuit design for peak performance.

### Real and Reactive Power Calculator

In AC circuits, real power (watts, W) performs tasks like running motors. Reactive power (VAR) creates and maintains electric and magnetic fields.

### Solenoid Coil Electromagnetic Force Calculator

Solenoid coil electromagnetic force is the magnetic field generated by current through a helical wire coil. It transforms electrical energy into mechanical motion, controlling actuators, switches, and valves in electro-mechanical systems.

### Spring Mass Calculator

The spring-mass analogy applies mechanical concepts to electrical systems, aiding analysis and design of complex networks.

### T Matching Network Calculator

By modifying the characteristics of resistors, capacitors, or inductors, the T matching network is a circuit configuration intended to match the impedance of two electrical components or systems. It usually comprises of a series or parallel arrangement of reactive parts that are joined to a “T”-shaped transmission line.

### Three Phase Voltage By Two Wattmeters Method Calculator

The “Three Phase Voltage By Two Wattmeters Method” accurately measures three-phase voltage, ensuring system function, detecting imbalances, and optimizing efficiency.

### Transformer Primary Conductor Size Calculator

Transformer primary conductor size refers to the cross-sectional area of conductors connected to the primary winding, ensuring efficient power transmission and secure electrical operation.

### Weight of Transformer Windings Calculator

Transformer winding weight includes wire, insulation, and coatings mass, crucial for designing transformers to withstand loads and environmental conditions, guiding material selection for optimal performance.

### Wire Diameter Calculator

Wire diameter affects resistance, flexibility, and current capacity, crucial for safe and efficient transmission.

### Microstrip Cross Talk

Crosstalk is the undesired coupling of signals between nearby lines, causing interference and potential digital circuit malfunctions. In high-speed systems, predicting wave propagation and estimating crosstalk is crucial. This online calculator determines PCB microstrip crosstalk based on trace spacing and substrate height to preempt interconnection noise.

### Microstrip Differential

Explore the characteristics of microstrip transmission lines and calculate precise differential impedance for optimal circuit design. Ensure accurate signal propagation for high-frequency and RF applications like USB D+ and D-.

### Nichrome Calculator

Nichrome, a Nickel-Chromium alloy, offers corrosion resistance and high melting points. Nichrome A (80% Ni, 20% Cr) operates up to 1150℃, while Nichrome C (60% Ni, 16% Cr, 24% Fe) reaches 1000℃. Our online calculator simplifies Nichrome coil calculations for resistance, power, current, and voltage.

### 555 Timer Calculator

The 555 timer IC generates precise timing signals in bistable, monostable, or astable modes. It’s essential for accurate time delays, PWM, frequency, and clock signals in electronic circuits.

### Capacitor Energy (E) and RC Time Constant Calculator

The quantity of electrical energy stored in a capacitor is known as capacitor energy (E), and it is calculated using the formula E = 0.5 * C * V^2, which takes into account both the capacitance (C) and the voltage (V) across the capacitor.

### Copper Wire Self Inductance Calculator

Copper wire self-inductance generates EMF in response to current changes, as per Faraday’s law. Understanding it is crucial for managing circuit behavior, anticipating and mitigating its effects like voltage spikes and current fluctuations delays, ensuring system stability and performance.

### Copper Loss Calculator

Electric current in copper conductors generates resistance, leading to heat and copper loss. Minimizing loss optimizes design, enhancing efficiency, and cutting operational costs.

### Figure of Merit Calculator

The Figure of Merit (FOM) quantifies system quality or efficiency using metrics like power efficiency or signal-to-noise ratio. It aids decision-making in design, optimization, and component selection.

### Horsepower and Watts Conversion Calculator

Horsepower to watts conversion aids power measurement comprehension across systems, assessing equipment, automotive, and appliance power ratings for consumers and engineers.

### Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform Calculator

The Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) converts frequency-domain signals back to time-domain, crucial for circuit development and debugging.

### LM317 Voltage and Resistor Calculator

LM317 voltage regulator, with external resistors, sets output voltage precisely. It stabilizes and controls voltage, ensuring dependable operation of electrical components despite input voltage variations or load changes.

### NE555 Timer Astable Circuit Calculator

The NE555 timer astable circuit produces continuous square wave output, useful for timing and control in electronics applications.

### PI Network Impedance Matching Calculator

A configuration of passive parts, usually resistors, inductors, and capacitors, arranged in a particular topology that resembles the Greek letter “π” is known as the PI network impedance matching. With this network, you may maximize power transfer and reduce signal reflections by matching the impedance of one circuit or component to another.

### Parallel Capacitor Calculator

When capacitors are linked in parallel, their combined capacitance equals the sum of their individual capacitances. Consequently, the total capacitance (CT) exceeds the capacitance of any single capacitor in the group.

### Specific Work of Gas Turbine Calculator

Gas turbine specific work quantifies work output per unit mass flow rate, optimizing design for performance and environmental impact reduction.

### Speaker Sound Q Calculator

Speaker Sound Q evaluates speaker system efficiency, fidelity, distortion, and frequency response, assessing accuracy and efficiency in audio reproduction.Speaker Sound Q evaluates speaker system efficiency, fidelity, distortion, and frequency response, assessing accuracy and efficiency in audio reproduction.

### Spring Resonant Frequency Calculator

Spring resonant frequency is the natural frequency at which a spring-mass system oscillates. It helps analyze mechanical systems’ stability and vibrational properties, aiding in the design and optimization of devices and structures.

### Temperature Rise In Pumps Calculator

Monitoring temperature rise in pumps ensures safe and efficient operation by detecting potential issues like overheating or inadequate cooling, preventing pump failure or reduced performance.

### Total Luminous Flux Calculator

Total Luminous Flux, in lumens (lm), gauges a light source’s overall brightness, encompassing all visible wavelengths. It aids in selecting suitable lighting solutions and comparing sources for various applications.

### 8051 PIC Microcontroller Time Delay Calculator

The 8051 PIC microcontroller’s time delay capability enables precise timing in circuits, enhancing versatility for time-sensitive applications.

### Transformer Wire Length Calculator

Transformer wire length is crucial for voltage and current transformation, determining performance and enabling efficient energy transfer between circuits.

### PCB Microstrip Crosstalk Calculator

Crosstalk is the coupling of undesired signals between nearby lines, like when a signal “jumps” from one trace to another. A phenomenon that is unintentional and often unwanted, so when designing system that are high speed and the traces/wires are very close, crosstalk must be taken into consideration. These interferences can be significant, leading to digital circuits malfunctioning. To avoid this, it’s ideal to predict how waves will propagate along the line and estimate the amount of crosstalk. The predicted result can be used to determine, in advance, the severity of the interconnection noise in the circuit.