Parallel Wire Impedance Calculator

Parallel Wire Impedance

The combined resistance, capacitance, and inductance that parallel wires carrying alternating current must overcome is represented by the parallel wire impedance.
It takes into consideration how the skin effect, proximity effect, and mutual capacitance between the wires all work together to affect how current flows through a parallel wire configuration.

To comprehend and lessen the consequences of interference and signal degradation in electrical and electronic systems, parallel wire impedance is mostly taken into account.
Engineers can avoid signal distortion, preserve signal integrity, and maximize performance by designing circuits and transmission lines with a thorough understanding of parallel wire impedance.

Understanding Parallel Wire Impedance:

Impedance in parallel wires signifies the collective impedance observed when two or more parallel conductors, including wires, cables, or transmission lines, are interconnected. When these conductors are grouped together in parallel, they create a unified circuit displaying a consolidated impedance.

Factors Affecting Parallel Wire Impedance:

Resistance:The impedance of a circuit is influenced by the resistance present in each conductor. When calculating the total impedance, one must consider the cumulative effect of all individual resistances combined.

Inductance: The total impedance of a system is influenced by the inductance of each individual conductor. When calculating the total impedance, one must consider the combined effect of all individual inductances, which are summed together to determine the overall inductance of the system.

Capacitance: The total impedance is influenced by the capacitance between the conductors and the surrounding environment. It is determined by adding up the individual capacitances.

Frequency: Changes in signal frequency as it passes through parallel wires can impact impedance levels. As frequency rises, impedance also increases, primarily due to phenomena like skin effect and proximity effect.


  • High-Frequency Circuits
  • Transmission Lines
  • Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)
  • Signal Integrity
  • Antenna Systems
  • Cable design: Comprehending the impedance of parallel wires is crucial in crafting cables capable of effectively conveying signals across extended distances.
  • Electrical power distribution:The impedance of parallel wires plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of electrical power distribution networks, such as power grids and transmission lines.
  • Signal integrity: The impedance of parallel wires significantly influences the signal integrity of communication systems, including telephone and internet cables.


To sum up, the impedance of parallel wires is a multifaceted concept influenced by factors such as resistance, inductance, capacitance, and frequency. By comprehending these elements and applying the appropriate equations, it is possible to compute the overall impedance of parallel wires and devise effective electrical systems.

To find the propagation delay, inductance, and impedance of parallel wires in an electrical circuit, use this online calculator. To get the desired results, just enter the diameter, dielectric constant, and separation values.

Note : Don’t end with comma ( , )

Wire separation (s)
Wire diameter (d)
Relative dielectric constant (er)


\[Zo= \frac{120}{\sqrt{er}}⋅acosh\frac{s}{d}\]


  • Zo = Characteristic Impedance
  • er =Relative Dielectric Constant
  • s = Separation Value
  • d = Diameter Value


\[Tpd = 3.333 ⋅\sqrt{}er⋅dimensioin\]


Tpd = Propagation Delay
er = Relative Dielectric Constant
dimension = Dimension Value


\[C = Tpd ⋅ Zo\]


C = Capacitance
Tpd = Propagation Delay
Zo = Characteristic Impedance


\[L = \frac{C}{100}\]


L = Inductance
C = Capacitance

Any questions? Drop them here!